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Poultry probiotic cuts its coat to beat bad bacteria

stockxpertcom_id3121281_size2[1]A strain of probiotic bacteria that can fight harmful bacterial infections in poultry has the ability to change its coat, according to new findings from the Institute of Food Research.

The probiotic is currently being taken forward through farm-scale trials to evaluate how well it combats Clostridium perfringens – a cause of necrotic enteritis in poultry and the second most common cause of food poisoning in the UK

SEM of Lactobacillus johnsonii (Kathryn Cross, IFR)

Lactobacillus johnsonii (Kathryn Cross, IFR)

The researchers at IFR, which is strategically funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, had previously found that the probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonsii, when given to young chicks, prevents the colonisation of C. perfringens. Now, in research published in the journal PLOS ONE, they have found that the probiotic bacteria have the ability to alter their coat. They speculate that this could be one way in which the probiotic outcompete C. perfringens.

L.johnsonii colonies with different coat thickness (Nikki Horn, IFR)

L.johnsonii colonies with different coat thickness (Nikki Horn, IFR)

The researchers noticed when examining the bacteria that a small number of them appear smooth. They identified genes responsible for making a special coat, or slime capsule, which the bacteria surround themselves in. This protects the bacteria from stomach acids and bile salts, and helps them come together to form biofilms. It may also protect against drying out when outside the host. The natural appearance of smooth mutants could be a ploy used by the bacteria to introduce variation into its populations, making them able to take advantage of different environments.

By turning off one or more of the coat genes, they could see what effect this had on its ability to stick to gut tissues. “The next step is to understand the regulation of the genes involved in making the coat” said Dr Arjan Narbad, who led the studies. “We want to find out whether changing the coat affects the probiotic’s fitness to colonise and inhabit the gut.”

This in turn could prevent C. perfringens from colonising the gut. This competitive exclusion could be one reason why the probiotic strain prevents the growth of other harmful bacteria.

Understanding the role of the slime capsule coat will inform the commercial development of this strain as a preventative treatment for C. perfringens infection in poultry, especially in regard to how the probiotic is stored and produced. Through the technology transfer company Plant Bioscience Ltd, the strain has been patented and is now in large-scale farm trials to assess its efficacy. As these bacteria have previously been used in the food chain and are considered safe for human consumption, this probiotic strain could become new way of controlling C. perfringens.

As there is a growing pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in farming, new products are needed to maintain animal welfare standards, reduce the huge costs of necrosis in poultry and help keep our food safe.

Read Dr Arjan Narbad’s blog entry on competitive exclusion here

Reference: Spontaneous mutation reveals importance of exopolysaccharide to Lactobacillus johnsonii surface charcteristics, PLOS ONE, http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059957

Contacts:

IFR Press Office:

Andrew Chapple, andrew.chapple@ifr.ac.uk, 01603 251490

Notes to Editors:

About the Institute of Food Research

The mission of the Institute of Food Research, www.ifr.ac.uk, is to undertake international quality scientific research relevant to food and human health and to work in partnership with others to provide underpinning science for consumers, policy makers, the food industry and academia. It is a company limited by guarantee, with charitable status.

IFR is one of eight institutes that receive strategic funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. IFR received a total of £14.4M investment from BBSRC in 2011-12.

The institutes deliver innovative, world class bioscience research and training, leading to wealth and job creation, generating high returns for the UK economy. They have strong links with business, industry and the wider community, and support policy development

The institutes’ research underpins key sectors of the UK economy such as agriculture, bioenergy, biotechnology, food and drink and pharmaceuticals. In addition, the institutes maintain unique research facilities of national importance.

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  1. GHFS scientists discover that probiotic bacteria in poultry have the ability to alter their coat | Gut Health and Food Safety Blog - 29 April, 2013

    […] Now, in research published in the journal PLOS ONE, they explore the possible role of novel exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by this bacterium in this competitive exclusion phenomenon.  The full story can be read on the IFR News Blog. […]